Saturday, December 18, 2021

The year 2021


This time last year I commented on words such as 'unprecedented', as it applied to the COVID 19 pandemic which continues to seriously affect our world's physical and mental health, and the economy.  This year, the word that has surfaced many times in my mind is 'fatigue'.  During a long, cold winter, with restrictions on movements and activities, and unprecedented efforts by our governments to provide vaccination for all, fatigue has been evident in my little world, as well as the big world out there.  And recent changes to the 'rules' do not provide me with assurance or comfort.  We can only imagine what lies ahead.

By way of contrast, I have been encouraged by a phrase in a Christmas hymn, 'The thrill of hope, the weary world rejoices' (from O Holy Night).  I encourage you, dear reader, to ponder the hope we each have in our Saviour Jesus, the message of Christmas, and the hope that our weary world will truly rejoice.

This year, as with last, I do not have a photo of all our children and grand-children.  The group photo was taken earlier this year when we met up for lunch with Paul, Emily, and Poppy, Zachy, and Abigail, and Josh and Anna, Eve and Norah. 

Having spent a lot of time at home without visitors, I have enjoyed working on some of our family's history, gathering and scanning old photographs and putting together a book about my grand parents Tom and Jessie Davidson.  With the help of cousins, some of whom I have not seen since childhood, I have prepared a book and distributed it as a digital file so that family members can print out their own copies.  I hope the younger generations will hold onto and treasure the images and stories from previous generations.

Another project has been to help my sister Marion Andrews with desktop publishing of her story, 'All the way to Bamaga'.  This is the story of Jie Jie (Mandarin Chinese for 'big sister') and 'Little me' and our younger siblings and parents, and our time in far north Queensland.  

Enough of my doings.  Noel has kept himself busy with work  in our local church, Gisborne Pres, and as convenor of the Victorian committee of Australian Presbyterian World Missions.  He also takes the lion's share of caring for the livestock in our little piece of country - ponies, chooks, Bingo the dog, and a recent addition - a hive of bees.  We are thankful for the health and strength that we have. 

This year we are planning simple gatherings for festive meals on Christmas day and Boxing day.  We are very conscious of the threat of the current strains of the covid virus, without being fearful as we know that God works in all things for the good of those who love Him, who are called according to His purpose. (Rom 8:28)

We would like to take this opportunity to send loving greetings to you and your family.

Joy and Noel

reflecting on the year 2020


The year 2020 has brought unexpected and often undesired changes into our lives.  The word ‘unprecedented’ has taken on new meaning not just in our family, but in our world.  In response to the COVID 19 pandemic, we have experienced restrictions to freedoms that, previously, had been taken for granted.  Our freedom of movement was curtailed when ’stay at home’ orders appeared.  Our practice of weekly attendance at Church has been blocked for many months, and substituted with electronic broadcasts.  We have returned to Church, with masks and a sign-in ‘QR Code’ and other restrictions as reminders of the ongoing threat. Our freedom to visit our families in the greater Melbourne area was denied during the months of ’lockdown’, with a ’ring of steel’  that could not be traversed either way without a suitable permit.   Our children’s access to education has been disrupted, and replaced, with varying degrees of acceptability, by Zoom sessions and supervision of home learning by (mainly) mothers.   At the same time mothers and fathers have also been working from home. 

This year there is no ‘all-of-the-family’ photo.  We have not been together at the same time.  We are thankful for the small gatherings that we have been able to enjoy. 

We (Noel&Joy/Dad&Mum/Grandpa&Granny) continue to enjoy our ’lifestyle’, with chookies, ponies, and Bingo to look after; grass to mow; fruit trees and garden to water and tend.   We love the opportunities that we have to care for our precious grandchildren, and each day we pray that God will protect, guide, and strengthen each family. 

[picture:  our new grand daughter, Abigail.]


Friday, January 31, 2020

The size of families

My great-grandmother, Angelina, died in childbirth.  She left eleven children.  My grandfather, Frank, was just four years old.

My grandmother, Jane, also had a large family.  After her eighth child was born, her husband Frank moved out of the marital bed and slept on the verandah. 

My mother, Ella, gave birth to seven children.  She then had a hysterectomy and pelvic repair.

I ponder the realities of death, abstainence. sterilisation.  
My forebears were fertile.  From the time of marriage they expected to welcome a new baby, sometimes two, every couple of years.  Most mothers were busy with the work of feeding and caring for their families. 

My generation, born after the Second World War, had new contraceptive options.  Women were no longer expected to stay at home looking after children for the rest of our productive lives.  My husband Noel and I joyfully welcomed our four children, and decided that four was enough.  We did not question the fate of the potential babies that we carried in our bodies.  We sought to care for the four children we had, and to be satisfied with them, and with each other. 

I remember when I was pregnant saying, "I don't mind if it's a boy or a girl.  As long as it's healthy."  
What right did I have to demand or expect a healthy child?  How ignorant!

The size of families, and whether or not to have children at all, is a topic that should concern the present generation of potential parents.  We face a social environment in which many women are unwilling to submit to pregnancy, childbearing, and the nurture of the young; where both men and women protect their freedom and don't want to be tied down to a family, or women leave their run so late that they face infertility.  The failure of today's generation to be willing or able to become parents is no less a societal disease than infectious diseases that wiped out babies and children of previous generations prior to vaccines and a scientific understanding of infection.   

In reflecting on this topic, I was drawn to a well known Biblical passage, written at the very dawn of the Christian era.  The Apostle John wrote: "He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him.  Yet to all who received him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God; children born not of natural descent, nor of human decision, or a husband's will, but born of God."  (John 1: 11-13) 

The point that is clear in this statement is that John identified decision-making processes that were recognised as the norm.  In our day, we can add "a woman's choice".

unsound ultrasound

From time to time I have faced a challenging situation, in which the report from a prenatal ultrasound leaves the pregnant woman and her husband with more questions than answers.  Prior to the ultrasound scan, there was a tiny person inside her womb, growing, constantly taking nutrition from her blood, and causing the nausea and other physical effects that come with hormonal changes.

They looked forward to the scan.

... an opportunity to confirm life and wellness.

... their child; welcome and already loved.

Then a phone call.  "You need to make an appointment to talk to the doctor about the scan."

The science behind prenatal diagnosis is significant, and developing constantly.  Risk assessment, especially for Down (or Down's) Syndrome is fairly standard in today's maternity care.  This includes measurement of the translucency or thickness of the nuchal fold, and identification of soft markers.  Most women (or couples) undergoing ultrasound scans in early pregnancy have no idea that they may be expected to make the chilling decision to abort or not.

Ultrasound is not essential to maternity care.  If a pregnant woman knows she does not want ultrasound she can decline the test.  But most would say that they want to 'see' their baby.

Our world today does not acknowledge the Judeo-Christian principles about the sanctity of human life.  When I see  the familiar images from ultrasound screening I see a person who is created in God's image.  A person for whom the 'You shall not kill' principle of the Ten Commandments applies.

When unprepared women attend ultrasound screening they love to see the movements, especially before the time of quickening, around 17-20 weeks, when they can feel movements.  They love to see the tiny thumb going into their baby's mouth.  The heart beats rhythmically, and the rate is recorded. 

The technician makes other routine measurements, and notes them down.  She or he is looking for anomalies: the unusual or abnormal.  These matters then become reasons for further testing, and, frequently, reasons for terminating the pregnancy.

Ultrasound is a serious medical test.  It has been used for protecting the life of a baby who would otherwise have died.  It can be the beginning of an unpredictable and unplanned journey through new terrain.  For example:

  • The baby's heart had not formed properly.  He had an under-developed Right atrium.  He probably will not survive, and if he does, he will need open heart surgery.  The parents are advised to abort their baby at 22 weeks.
  • The measurement of the baby's head is small.  She will probably have microcephaly, and brain damage.  Subsequent ultrasound measurements lead to confusion about the baby's condition.

Many women today in our society are entering motherhood for the first time at an age when the risk of Down Syndrome is already increased, before they consider the results of ultrasound scans.  A woman is told that at 40 her risk of conceiving a baby with Down Syndrome is *high*, at 1:100.  Then she is told that there is a *small* 1% risk of spontaneously aborting following amniocentesis.  1% is also 1:100.

Our world is subject to disorder, disease, and corruption - even down to the genes that we carry and pass on to our children.  

Monday, December 30, 2019

Abortion: The deal-breaker

Social media moves quickly.  

Comments and responses appear.

Recently I (Joy Johnston) experienced being blocked from a social media group that is connected (unofficially) with my Church.  I do not want to identify the Church, or the group.  Readers who know me know that I am a woman with a strong religious faith.  If you have any questions about what I believe and practice as a Christian, please contact me. 

The context was the Christianity Today editorials about the US President. I commented in the group "I can't see why some Christians make abortion the deal breaker. The provision of safe abortion is a key component of public health services." 

This comment was not acceptable.

I have been told to repent, that I'm probably not even a Christian, and that my Church should discipline me.  

Just to let you know I am personally opposed to abortion, and throughout my professional life I have attempted to support women in making better choices. However abortion is legal in Victoria, and I accept the fact.  That's the context of my comment.  We live in a secular society, that gives little regard to Christian principles, and the law at present where I live permits abortion.

Many people at the conservative end of the political system are feeding off the American political debate, and calling out 'murder' for anyone who is not waving the politically charged 'pro-life' banner, while they turn a blind eye to immorality, lying, ...  

So ...

With the wisdom of hindsight, I might have written my response more carefully.  My post was met with personal and targeted rejection. 

But I have spoken truthfully, and perhaps some good will come of it.  I am writing it here for the record.  I hope to develop the thought further as I critically examine my actions and beliefs.

Other reading:  

Monday, March 05, 2018

MY body ...

Thoughts on choice, effective communication, and decision making in childbirth

Dear reader,
Now that I am retired from midwifery practice I don't have the same access to real life events that used to prompt me to write in the past.   I am 'restricted', so to speak, to my circle of friends, acquaintances, family, and what comes my way via the already-filtered social media the 'news'.  

Today I want to reflect on a very real, every day situation in the world of the midwife; a situation that I have recently been reminded of in real life.

A woman, aged 30 years, at Term, comes into labour with her first child.  She has been well through the pregnancy.  Her BMI is in the 'high' range, and she has followed dietary advice, maintaining minimal weight gain, and keeping blood sugars within the normal range.  Throughout the pregnancy she has stated clearly that she is planning a birth without interventions.

My body ...

Labour progressed well.  The pain became intolerable, and they went to the hospital where she had booked.  The hospital midwife focused on the baby's heart rate being too slow at times.  The labouring mumma just wanted a break!   Someone offered an epidural, and the mother accepted it. 
Everyone can relax now.  Baby's heart rate is fine - it must have been a problem with the pickup of heart sounds by the monitor.


My body, except that I can't feel anything below my waist. 

My baby ... 

Some time later the monitor declared that baby's heart rate was slowing down.  Doctors who mother hadn't previously met entered the room.  They had been watching the monitor trace at the ward desk computers.  
Brief introductions, 
legs go up in stirrups that appeared out of nowhere ... 
and a procedure to determine baby's blood gas levels. 

Consent form is signed

Rush to the operating theatre
Casearean surgery
Baby is fine!

... forward 5 days

Mother is overwhelmed.  The preceding days are just a haze in her mind, having received generous doses of opiate drugs to numb her pain.  She cries and sobs "Everything that I planned has gone wrong". 

The mother sits with a breast pump in the beautiful room that she had prepared so lovingly.  Somebody else gives the baby a bottle of expressed breast milk, and a 'top up' of artificial milk from a formula can.  Attempts at breast feeding have been less than satisfactory.  Baby just goes to sleep - out like a light.  Doesn't know what to do.  A couple of times baby did seem to be sucking at the breast, but left ridges and blisters on the nipples that quickly progressed to bleeding.  Now someone else changes baby's nappy, and cuddles her after the feed.  


I am reflecting on this birth, focusing on choice, communication, and decision making in childbirth

  • Choice:  From early pregnancy this mother had made what she considered to be an informed choice.  She wanted what was best for her baby, herself, her family.  She researched childbirth advice, went to classes, and spoke with friends.  It was a no-brainer.  She wanted to give birth without [that ugly thing, whatever it was] intervention.  Drugs are bad for mother and baby.  Drugs are dangerous.  No drugs.  Birth is natural.  Natural is best.

  • Communication: The words clearly communicated by the mother; "no intervention", became less meaningful as labour became established.  This is not news to a midwife or a doctor working in maternity.  Even as the night progresses and weariness sets in, some women become more and more distressed with the pain of labour.  The midwife can't ignore a woman's pain.   It can be a sign that everything is going well, and the mother is resisting the need to surrender neo-cortical control.  Or sometimes it may mean that the labour is obstructing.  This is one point at which a known and trusted midwife who is primary carer is able to either reassure the woman or prepare her for ongoing decision making in labour.  There was no such midwife for this mother. 

  • Decision making:  In all the prenatal preparation that this mother had done she had not grasped decision making as an ongoing, active process in pregnancy, birth, and all that childbearing entails.  She liked 'choice', and 'control'.  'Choice' gives the mirage of control.  Yet noone has absolute control of their own body's function, let alone control of the actions of other people such as the staff of a hospital.  This mother did not understand that each decision she made influenced the next option she would have.   

For some years now there has been a push by some midwives and birth activists to assert birth rights within a global human rights agenda.  A march planned in Melbourne is headed 'Birth Rights are Women's Rights'.  The promotional material for this march states:
"... Getting it right in the birth context could provide a strong platform from which to assert how vital it is that all women are treated as humans at all times, with the rights this should afford them.
By contrast, childbirth also provides the perfect opportunity to undermine those rights. Looking across the developed and developing world it is clear that the broad spectrum of women's freedoms is undermined daily in birth. If we don't value their experiences in an act that is particular to them, we make it an easy access point for those who seek to disrupt feminist process." - Rebecca Schiller Why Human Rights in Childbirth Matter

I don't think there was any intention in the case I am reflecting on, or the many others that take place daily in our maternity hospitals, to ignore or undermine the woman's rights or freedom.  When the mother declared that she wanted to give birth without intervention it wasn't a wish list.  She considered it her right to choose.  That's where she was misguided.  In choosing to give birth without intervention she needed to know how to give birth under physiological conditions.   She was a victim of her own ignorance, rather than a system designed to undermine her freedom and disrupt the female process. 

I believe there is a lot of mis-information doing the rounds of childbirth education classes - both those given by hospitals and those provided privately.  I have seen claims that the choice of place of birth, and choice of who provides midwifery care, are human rights.  No!  They are (in this part of the world at least) usually linked to a person's ability to pay, and occasionally linked to the person's access to a funded program.  It has nothing to do with being "treated as humans at all times" (Schiller, R. quoted above).  

In an ideal world, every pregnant woman would have access to, if they wished, a known and skilled midwife who facilitates effective maternity care for women planning homebirth, and hospital care for those for whom it is appropriate.   There is plenty of literature supporting this model as safe.  But it's not easy.

Dear reader, I am writing this because I am very sorry for the young mother and father and baby in the case I have described.  I am sorry that she feels so very disappointed.  

Yet, I am optimistic that there is hope for this mother to recover, and to become strong again.  As she and her baby learn breastfeeding and the hormones of love surge in their bodies, there will be healing for both of them.  Even in sub-optimal situations there are many blessings.  Young women become strong and resilient as they learn to deal with real life situations.  Children thrive in the care of strong, loving families.

Friday, December 22, 2017

Thinking about Christmas cards and greetings

Some of what I post here has been comments I made on my Facebook account, so if you are a 'friend' of mine (as defined by FB) you may have seen some of this.  I am aware that some who receive notification of my writings at this villagemidwife site may have no other links with me.  So rather than speaking just to 'friends' - and only those whose FB accounts are set to receive my posts - I have moved my deliberations to this site. 

Has anyone else pondered how very complex our sending and receiving of Christmas greetings has become? There was a day when everyone bought their standard Christmas cards by early December, put an address on an envelope, wrote a few words, affixed a special stamp that was less expensive than ordinary stamps, and posted them. Done and dusted! In those days the verb to 'post' referred to use of the post office. 

Then we had the option of a personalised card, with a picture that meant something special about the person sending the card. This card below, with our little family: Noel, beautiful little Miriam, and I, was our 1974 greeting. Over the years I have looked out for a good family pic to include in our annual letter. That hasn't always been easy. Sometimes one or more of the children may be less than cooperative ... (you know what happens then!) And then, as the family grows up, I have sometimes wondered if it's OTT (over the top) to (over-)share on the lives of our offspring. Those questions come and go without any resolution. We have generous, loving offspring who accept their parents without too much critical comment.

In the past 20 or so years we, and most of our peers, have embraced everything digital. Some haven't. Which brings me to my initial comment on the complex nature of sending and receiving Christmas greetings. So now we send a message via fb, as I did yesterday, as well as some by email, and paper copies via Australia Post to a few special people for whom the other systems are not acceptable. And my 'system' includes 'posting' our annual greeting on a blog which gives me, and anyone else who finds their way to the site, me a readily available summary of our lives.
Are paper copies of a greeting more meaningful than digital?
That's a question that I will not try to answer.

We live in a day when there are so many ways of connecting with people we know that we could easily become overwhelmed. The Christmas card in the post 30 years ago was probably a lot more meaningful than it is today, when the pretty cards can also be sent by email, fb, messenger, blogs and other forms of social media. Are friendships enhanced by one method of communication or another?

I have found the old style of communication - face to face, with a loving hug or smile, or a phone call from someone who I won't be able to see - these are the ways that I feel loved and cared about. And of course we are limited to just a few people with those old forms of communication, compared with the massive reach of digital magic. So can I encourage anyone who reads this to give your loving greetings in person, or a phone call, to someone who may not have much personal contact with others.

Tuesday, October 10, 2017

Replacing the midwife?

The woman found it difficult to trust anyone.  Very difficult.  Her anxieties about bad people and bad things were overwhelming.  'They' were likely to force her to take medicines that were bad.  The bacteria and viruses in public spaces were bad.  The 'system' would force her to have surgery that she didn't want.

The woman became pregnant.  She had been pregnant a couple of times previously, but had terminated those pregnancies early.  She wasn't ready then.  For some reason this baby stayed in place and before long she was experiencing new feelings - movements.  Her need to control must have been weakened as the maternal and placental hormone levels surged.

She was strong and healthy, and avoided anything that sounded like professional maternity care.  But she was curious, and a bit of a geek, well versed in all things digital, so a couple of ultrasound scans were arranged through a local medical practice.  Fascinated by the imaging, she asked lots of questions of the technician.

The woman found a new world opening up in cyber space.  Groups and forums, with varying levels of security, brought a host of information and options, as well as a sense of belonging.  It wasn't long before she found herself linked to a network of like-minded women, or at least she thought they were.  One was close to giving birth, and described her plans to bring together a supportive group of women, all with positive energy, so that she could give birth in a state of ecstasy.

The woman found a fetal monitoring device on e-bay.   She bought it, strapped it on, and listened to the rapid wop-wop-wop, with occasional kicks or hicoughs to break the monotony.  Over time the woman was becoming more excited about the thought of 'free' birth.  It ticked all her boxes.  And a couple of friends from the online community had told her they would help her.  These women were experienced, from their own births especially.


This story is based on real people; real events.  I do not want to describe it further.  The reader can envisage the possibilities.

There have always been people with anxiety neuroses and other aspects of mental health impairment.  The distrust and fear of everything bad, as this woman experienced, is not new.   A midwife who earns the respect and trust of a woman whose mental state is fragile may be able to support and empower her in a restorative way, as she prepares to bring a baby into her life.

The element that has recently been added, in some cases triggering the perfect storm, is the information overload that has been unleashed via the internet and social media.

In this story there has been no midwife, no systematic maternity care or surveillance.  Babies will eventually be born, even if there is noone providing care or checking health and development.  In this world of distrust the midwife is seen as a medical person, and anything medical is to be avoided and not trusted.  But, you will say, surely the ultrasound scans are medical?  Surely the strapped on monitoring device is medical?  Of course.  This world is not always logical.  The fragments of professional knowledge that can be shared digitally from person to person via social media can give a sense of great knowledge, especially to the novice who is just beginning to navigate the terrain.

In my experience this woman did seek out midwifery care, quite late in her pregnancy.  That's how I come to know about her.  There was no development of a mutually trusting relationship or partnership.  Distrust was worse than the germ-phobia.  My professional guidance was received at arms length, and it was being checked against the mirage of wisdom of the team of guides.  On the positive side of the ledger was a healthy baby and a physically healthy mother, and a process that does not submit to intellectual control, but is driven by wonderfully powerful physical and physiological-hormonal forces.


Now imagine ....
  • that a digital device was developed to replace the personal midwife
  • that this device could be strapped on or implanted or otherwise attached to the woman 
  • that this device monitored and recorded all the physical observations recommended in maternity care
  • that this device provided the woman with a real time decision making guide
  • that the information recorded by this device could be accessed remotely, by whom-ever the woman chose to share it with
  •  ... and so on   

It sounds so realistic, so do-able, that now I'm getting anxious.

Already many women in labour are connected to continuous electronic fetal monitoring devices that record the baby's heart rate and the time/duration of maternal contractions, maternal pulse and blood pressure.  Already those machines are linked to a monitor that is usually stationed at the 'desk' of the birth suite, and can be looked at by whoever is at the desk: a midwife, obstetrician, or someone else.  Already digital cameras exist that could be placed in the woman's vagina to record the dilatation of the cervix and the progress of the presenting part.

Our society has embraced technological interventions in pregnancy and birth to such a degree that these points I have imagined are not really fanciful.  We have the technology.  Someone just needs to put it together.  And just as our world is preparing for driver-less cars, the medico-legal world is ready to embrace technology that would give a new level of assurance, accountability, and what would be seen as less chance of human error.  Although research has failed to support improved outcomes from routine continuous electronic fetal monitoring, few women avoid it in maternity care.

The next step with the introduction of this unnamed device is that a woman who cannot trust the 'system' could see this as useful for her DIY 'free' birth.  Just as she strapped on the monitor at 26 weeks' gestation and listened to the rapid thudding of that tiny heart, she would likely see this device as something that would give her confidence, without the threat of 'bad' things happening at the hands of an un-trusted other person or system.

Yes, the system is full of flaws.  Yes, there are people with the title 'midwife' or 'doctor' who do not understand the woman's fears  and anxieties.  I hope maternity services will be reformed around care that centres on the needs of the individual woman, and enables her to trust the care she receives, and understand the imperfections as they arise.

I would like to think that a device will not replace the midwife.

Thursday, December 08, 2016

Coroner's reports and expert witness

'Midwives and the medicolegal system'

·       [These are the notes I prepared for a talk given at MAMA Caulfield today.]

My interest – 
§  a midwife in private practice 1992-2015.  Included many births that would be called ‘high risk’ today – grand multipara, births after caesareans, previous history of haemorrhage, undiagnosed twins and breech births.
§  Activism around the laws and regulations relevant to midwifery, particularly in the 1990s and 2000s.
§  Appointed to the (then) Nurses Board of Victoria. 
§  Ongoing, as a member of this society, a mother, grandmother &c, and a lifelong learner.  Reflecting on cases, and learning what happened, why, what could have been done differently, what would I do differently next time this happens

EXERCISE: Write down any phrases or sayings you can think of relevant to birth & midwifery (you don’t have to agree with them)
·       “Birth is not an illness”

·       “In normal birth there should be a valid reason to interfere with the natural process.”

·       “A midwife sits on her hands”

·       “Hands off the breech”

·       “My body, my baby, my birth”

·       “with woman”

·       “wise woman, sage femme”

·       Every woman needs a midwife

·       Choice, control, continuity of carer

A few links:
Planned homebirths in NSW*

*Note the finding that "Characterising these homebirths as a patient’s choice misrepresents the patient’s knowledge base in making that (uninformed, or not sufficiently informed) decision, and misunderstands the role of the professional in explaining risk and recommending safe practice"
Facebook site ‘Childbirth and the Law – Australia’ – “...This group is for discussing developments in the law about pregnancy and childbirth in Australia. It is not a forum for soliciting or giving legal advice or legal information.”

Examples of cases for which I have provided expert witness review on behalf of the legal team for one of the parties to litigation.

Baby developed cerebral palsy, and was suing the hospital.  Baby was born in hospital, vaginal birth after induction of labour at 38 weeks.  At about 3 hours after birth the mother discovered that her baby had become floppy and was not breathing.  Immediate resuscitation attempts and transfer to SCN, and appeared to recover well.

“Following your consideration of the material,:
(1) Please provide your opinion as to whether the midwives at [Hospital], in their treatment and management of the plaintiff , acted in a manner that was widely accepted in Australia by a significant number of respected midwives, as competent professional practice in the circumstances.
(2) If you are of the opinion that the midwives at [H] acted in a manner that was widely accepted in Australia as competent professional practice, please outline the basis of your opinion the practice was ‘widely accepted’.  Please note that as a matter of law, peer professional opinion does not have to be universally accepted to be considered widely accepted.
(3) Please provide your opinion on each of the allegations of negligence made against [H] in paragraph (xx) of the Statement of Claims.

Baby developed cerebral palsy after VBAC complicated by shoulder dystocia. Parents had begun proceedings against private midwife who was primary carer for planned homebirth, transferred in second stage to hospital. 

Based on the facts outlined in this case, I was asked whether I consider that:
(a)        M’s [Midwife’s] management of W’s [Woman’s] pregnancy and labour was in accordance with what would be widely accepted by peer opinion as competent professional practice.
(b)        it was appropriate for M to agree to manage the labour as a home birth.
(c)        M should have transferred W to hospital earlier.  If so, when and on the basis of what signs of symptoms?
(d)        there were any indications prior to x:xx pm (the time of birth) of possible shoulder dystocia or an increased risk of shoulder dystocia.

Medical negligence claim in which the doctor [D] disputes key aspects of the records made by the hospital midwives [M] at the time of birth of baby [B] who was delivered by Ventouse extraction, had Apgar scores of 1 at 1min and 3 at 5min, and developed cerebral palsy.  B has commenced a claim against Doctor D and the hospital.

My report addressed the following questions:
1.     In relation to the actions of the hospital staff, we ask you to examine the partogram and the other records made by the nursing staff and comment on their adequacy,
2.     We note the plaintiff pleads in paragraph [x] of the Statement of Claim that between 03:00 and 06:00 hours there was a reduction in the variability of the foetal heart rate.  In your opinion, should the midwives have contacted Dr [D] prior to his attendance at 06:30 hours?
3.     We note the hospital staff recorded “B.S.” (we assume this means blood-stained liquor) at 03:00 hours and “mec” (we assume this means meconium) at 03:30 hours, and “B.S.” and “mec” at 04:30 /05:00 hours.  Should the midwives have contacted Dr [D] and informed him of these developments?
4.     Any other comments you wish to make on the midwives’ management.
5.     We would be grateful if you could please confine your comments to the midwives’ management.  An obstetric expert will provide a view on Dr [D]’s management.


  • 1.     Mother’s rights vs baby’s (fetal) rights “my body, my baby, my birth”. Decision-making (not ‘choice’) Informed refusal, uninformed, or not sufficiently informed decision.
  • 2.     Communication and social media – huge change in past decade.  What’s in store?
  • 3.     True believer – ‘choice’, ‘control’, informed consent, non-intervention, natural, even ‘breast is best’
  • 4.     What it means to the midwife to plan for homebirth.
  • 5.     Lack of respect for the amazing processes of pregnancy, birth and nurture of the baby

Although birth is not an illness, the process carries potential for damage and death.  In birth there is a finite point after which the baby (or mother) will not do well, but it's impossible to predict where that point is.  Midwives accept and embrace this uncertainty, as we work in harmony with natural physiological processes which usually lead to spontaneous birth, or alternately as we intervene and interrupt that natural process.